Developer Guide

Developer Guide

This section contains the steps for building a StarlingX ISO from the “r/2018.10” branch.


The recommended minimum requirements include:

Hardware Requirements

A workstation computer with:

  • Processor: x86_64 is the only supported architecture
  • Memory: At least 32GB RAM
  • Hard Disk: 500GB HDD
  • Network: Network adapter with active Internet connection

Software Requirements

A workstation computer with:

Development Environment Setup

This section describes how to set up a StarlingX development system on a workstation computer. After completing these steps, you can build a StarlingX ISO image on the following Linux distribution:

  • Ubuntu 16.04 LTS 64-bit

Update Your Operating System

Before proceeding with the build, ensure your Ubuntu distribution is up to date. You first need to update the local database list of available packages:

$ sudo apt-get update

Installation Requirements and Dependencies


  1. Make sure you are a non-root user with sudo enabled when you build the StarlingX ISO. You also need to either use your existing user or create a separate <user>:

    $ sudo useradd -m -d /home/<user> <user>
  2. Your <user> should have sudo privileges:

    $ sudo sh -c "echo '<user> ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL' >> /etc/sudoers"
    $ sudo su -c <user>


  1. Install the required packages on the Ubuntu host system:

    $ sudo apt-get install make git curl
  2. Make sure to set up your identity using the following two commands. Be sure to provide your actual name and email address:

    $ git config --global "Name LastName"
    $ git config --global "Email Address"

Docker CE

  1. Install the required Docker CE packages in the Ubuntu host system. See Get Docker CE for Ubuntu for more information.

  2. Log out and log in to add your <user> to the Docker group:

    $ sudo usermod -aG docker <user>

Android Repo Tool

  1. Install the required Android Repo Tool in the Ubuntu host system. Follow the steps in the Installing Repo section.

Install Public SSH Key

  1. Follow these instructions on GitHub to Generate a Public SSH Key. Then upload your public key to your GitHub and Gerrit account profiles:

Create a Workspace Directory

  1. Create a starlingx workspace directory on your system. Best practices dictate creating the workspace directory in your $HOME directory:

    $ mkdir -p $HOME/starlingx/

Install stx-tools Project

  1. Under your $HOME directory, clone the <stx-tools> project:

    $ cd $HOME
    $ git clone
  2. Navigate to the <$HOME/stx-tools> project directory:

    $ cd $HOME/stx-tools/

Prepare the Base Docker Image

StarlingX base docker image handles all steps related to StarlingX ISO creation. This section describes how to customize the base Docker image building process.

Configuration Values

You can customize values for the StarlingX base Docker image using a text-based configuration file named localrc:

  • HOST_PREFIX points to the directory that hosts the ‘designer’ subdirectory for source code, the ‘loadbuild’ subdirectory for the build environment, generated RPMs, and the ISO image.
  • HOST_MIRROR_DIR points to the directory that hosts the CentOS mirror repository.

localrc Configuration File

Create your localrc configuration file. For example:

# tbuilder localrc

Build the Base Docker Image

Once the localrc configuration file has been customized, it is time to build the base Docker image.

  1. If necessary, you might have to set http/https proxy in your Dockerfile before building the docker image:

    ENV http_proxy " "
    ENV https_proxy " "
    ENV ftp_proxy " "
    RUN echo " proxy= " >> /etc/yum.conf
  2. The Makefile automates the Base Docker image build:


Build the CentOS Mirror Repository

The creation of the StarlingX ISO relies on a repository of RPM Binaries, RPM Sources, and Tar Compressed files. This section describes how to build this CentOS mirror repository.

Run Repository Docker Container

Run the following commands under a terminal identified as “One”:
  1. Navigate to the $HOME/stx-tools/centos-mirror-tool project directory:

    $ cd $HOME/stx-tools/centos-mirror-tools/
  2. Launch the Docker container using the previously created base Docker image <repository>:<tag>. As /localdisk is defined as the workdir of the container, you should use the same folder name to define the volume. The container starts to run and populate ‘logs’ and ‘output’ folders in this directory. The container runs from the same directory in which the scripts are stored.

    $ docker run -it --volume $(pwd):/localdisk local/$USER-stx-builder:7.4 bash

Download Packages

  1. Inside the Docker container, enter the following commands to download the required packages to populate the CentOS mirror repository:

    # cd localdisk && bash
  2. Monitor the download of packages until it is complete. When the download is complete, the following message appears:

    totally 17 files are downloaded!
    step #3: done successfully
    IMPORTANT: The following 3 files are just bootstrap versions. Based on them, the workable images
    for StarlingX could be generated by running "update-pxe-network-installer" command after "build-iso"
        - out/stx-r1/CentOS/pike/Binary/LiveOS/squashfs.img
        - out/stx-r1/CentOS/pike/Binary/images/pxeboot/initrd.img
        - out/stx-r1/CentOS/pike/Binary/images/pxeboot/vmlinuz

Verify Packages

  1. Verify no missing or failed packages exist:

    # cat logs/*_missing_*.log
    # cat logs/*_failmove_*.log
  2. In case missing or failed packages do exist, which is usually caused by network instability (or timeout), you need to download the packages manually. Doing so assures you get all RPMs listed in rpms_3rdparties.lst/rpms_centos.lst/rpms_centos3rdparties.lst.

Packages Structure

The following is a general overview of the packages structure resulting from downloading the packages:

└── stx-r1
    └── CentOS
        └── pike
            ├── Binary
            │   ├── EFI
            │   ├── images
            │   ├── isolinux
            │   ├── LiveOS
            │   ├── noarch
            │   └── x86_64
            ├── downloads
            │   ├── integrity
            │   └── puppet
            └── Source

Create CentOS Mirror Repository

Outside your Repository Docker container, in another terminal identified as “Two”, run the following commands:

  1. From terminal identified as “Two”, create a mirror/CentOS directory under your starlingx workspace directory:

    $ mkdir -p $HOME/starlingx/mirror/CentOS/
  2. Copy the built CentOS Mirror Repository built under $HOME/stx-tools/centos-mirror-tool to the $HOME/starlingx/mirror/ workspace directory:

    $ cp -r $HOME/stx-tools/centos-mirror-tools/output/stx-r1/ $HOME/starlingx/mirror/CentOS/

Create StarlingX Packages

Run Building Docker Container

  1. From the terminal identified as “Two”, create the workspace folder:

    $ mkdir -p $HOME/starlingx/workspace
  2. Navigate to the $HOME/stx-tools project directory:

    $ cd $HOME/stx-tools
  3. Verify environment variables:

    $ bash env
  4. Run the building Docker container:

    $ bash run
  5. Execute the buiding Docker container:

    $ bash exec

Download Source Code Repositories

  1. From the terminal identified as “Two”, which is now inside the Building Docker container, start the internal environment:

    $ eval $(ssh-agent)
    $ ssh-add
  2. Use the repo tool to create a local clone of the stx-manifest Git repository based on the “r/2018.10” branch:

    $ cd $MY_REPO_ROOT_DIR
    $ repo init -u -m default.xml -b r/2018.10

    NOTE: To use the “repo” command to clone the stx-manifest repository and check out the “master” branch, omit the “-b r/2018.10” option. Following is an example:

    $ repo init -u -m default.xml
  3. Synchronize the repository:

    $ repo sync -j`nproc`
  4. Create a tarballs repository:

    $ ln -s /import/mirrors/CentOS/stx-r1/CentOS/pike/downloads/ $MY_REPO/stx/

    Alternatively, you can run the “” script to copy the tarballs instead of using a symlink:

    $ /import/mirrors/CentOS/stx-r1/CentOS/pike/

    Outside the container

  5. From another terminal identified as “Three”, create mirror binaries:

    $ mkdir -p $HOME/starlingx/mirror/CentOS/stx-installer
    $ cp $HOME/starlingx/mirror/CentOS/stx-r1/CentOS/pike/Binary/images/pxeboot/initrd.img $HOME/starlingx/mirror/CentOS/stx-installer/initrd.img
    $ cp $HOME/starlingx/mirror/CentOS/stx-r1/CentOS/pike/Binary/images/pxeboot/vmlinuz $HOME/starlingx/mirror/CentOS/stx-installer/vmlinuz
    $ cp $HOME/starlingx/mirror/CentOS/stx-r1/CentOS/pike/Binary/LiveOS/squashfs.img $HOME/starlingx/mirror/CentOS/stx-installer/squashfs.img

Build Packages

  1. Go back to the terminal identified as “Two”, which is the Building Docker container.

  2. Temporal! Build-Pkgs Errors. Be prepared to have some missing / corrupted rpm and tarball packages generated during Build the CentOS Mirror Repository, which will cause the next step to fail. If that step does fail, manually download those missing / corrupted packages.

  3. Update the symbolic links:

    $ /import/mirrors/CentOS/stx-r1/CentOS/pike/
  4. Build the packages:

    $ build-pkgs
  5. Optional! Generate-Cgcs-Tis-Repo:

    While this step is optional, it improves performance on subsequent builds. The cgcs-tis-repo has the dependency information that sequences the build order. To generate or update the information, you need to execute the following command after building modified or new packages.

    $ generate-cgcs-tis-repo

Build StarlingX ISO

  1. Build the image:

    $ build-iso

Build Installer

To get your StarlingX ISO ready to use, you must create the initialization files used to boot the ISO, additional controllers, and compute nodes.

NOTE: You only need this procedure during your first build and every time you upgrade the kernel.

After running “build-iso”, run:

$ build-pkgs --installer

This builds rpm and anaconda packages. Then run:

$ update-pxe-network-installer

The update-pxe-network-installer covers the steps detailed in $MY_REPO/stx/stx-metal/installer/initrd/README. This script creates three files on /localdisk/loadbuild/pxe-network-installer/output.


Rename the files as follows:


Two ways exist for using these files:

  1. Store the files in the /import/mirror/CentOS/stx-installer/ folder for future use.
  2. Store the files in an arbitrary location and modify the $MY_REPO/stx/stx-metal/installer/pxe-network-installer/centos/ file to point to these files.

Recreate the pxe-network-installer package and rebuild the image:

$ build-pkgs --clean pxe-network-installer
$ build-pkgs pxe-network-installer
$ build-iso

Your ISO image should be able to boot.

Additional Notes

  • In order to get the first boot working, this complete procedure needs to be done. However, once the init files are created, these can be stored in a shared location where different developers can make use of them. Updating these files is not a frequent task and should be done whenever the kernel is upgraded.
  • StarlingX is in active development. Consequently, it is possible that in the future the 0.2 version will change to a more generic solution.

Build Avoidance


Greatly reduce build times after using “repo” to syncronized a local repository with an upstream source (i.e. “repo sync”). Build avoidance works well for designers working within a regional office. Starting from a new workspace, “build-pkgs” typically requires three or more hours to complete. Build avoidance reduces this step to approximately 20 minutes.


  • Little or no benefit for designers who refresh a pre-existing workspace at least daily (e.g., repo sync,, build-pkgs, build-iso). In these cases, an incremental build (i.e. reuse of same workspace without a “build-pkgs –clean”) is often just as efficient.
  • Not likely to be useful to solo designers, or teleworkers that wish to compile on using their home computers. Build avoidance downloads build artifacts from a reference build, and WAN speeds are generally too slow.

Method (in brief)

  1. Reference Builds

    • A server in the regional office performs regular (e.g. daily) automated builds using existing methods. These builds are called “reference builds”.

    • The builds are timestamped and preserved for some time (i.e. a number of weeks).

    • A build CONTEXT, which is a file produced by “build-pkgs” at location $MY_WORKSPACE/CONTEXT, is captured. It is a bash script that can cd to each and every Git and checkout the SHA that contributed to the build.

    • For each package built, a file captures the md5sums of all the source code inputs required to build that package. These files are also produced by “build-pkgs” at location $MY_WORKSPACE//rpmbuild/SOURCES//srpm_reference.md5.

    • All these build products are accessible locally (e.g. a regional office) using “rsync”.

      NOTE: Other protocols can be added later.

  2. Designers

    • Request a build avoidance build. Recommended after you have done synchronized the repository (i.e. “repo sync”).

      repo sync
      build-pkgs --build-avoidance
    • Use combinations of additional arguments, environment variables, and a configuration file unique to the regional office to specify an URL to the reference builds.

      • Using a configuration file to specify the location of your reference build:

        mkdir -p $MY_REPO/local-build-data
        cat <<- EOF > $MY_REPO/local-build-data/build_avoidance_source
        # Optional, these are already the default values.
        # Required, unique values for each regional office
      • Using command-line arguments to specify the location of your reference build:

        build-pkgs --build-avoidance --build-avoidance-dir /localdisk/loadbuild/jenkins/StarlingX_Reference_Build --build-avoidance-host --build-avoidance-user jenkins
    • Prior to your build attempt, you need to accept the host key. Doing so prevents “rsync” failures on a “yes/no” prompt. You only have to do this once.

      grep -q $BUILD_AVOIDANCE_HOST $HOME/.ssh/known_hosts
      if [ $? != 0 ]; then
      ssh-keyscan $BUILD_AVOIDANCE_HOST >> $HOME/.ssh/known_hosts
    • “build-pkgs” does the following:

      • From newest to oldest, scans the CONTEXTs of the various reference builds. Selects the first (i.e. most recent) context that satisfies the following requirement: every Git the SHA specifies in the CONTEXT is present.
      • The selected context might be slightly out of date, but not by more than a day. This assumes daily reference builds are run.
      • If the context has not been previously downloaded, then download it now. This means you need to download select portions of the reference build workspace into the designer’s workspace. This includes all the SRPMS, RPMS, MD5SUMS, and miscellaneous supporting files. Downloading these files usually takes about 10 minutes over an office LAN.
      • The designer could have additional commits or uncommitted changes not present in the reference builds. Affected packages are identified by the differing md5sum’s. In these cases, the packages are re-built. Re-builds usually take five or more minutes, depending on the packages that have changed.
    • What if no valid reference build is found? Then build-pkgs will fall back to a regular build.

Reference Builds

  • The regional office implements an automated build that pulls the latest StarlingX software and builds it on a regular basis (e.g. daily builds). Jenkins, cron, or similar tools can trigger these builds.

  • Each build is saved to a unique directory, and preserved for a time that is reflective of how long a designer might be expected to work on a private branch without syncronizing with the master branch. This takes about two weeks.

  • The MY_WORKSPACE directory for the build shall have a common root directory, and a leaf directory that is a sortable time stamp. The suggested format is YYYYMMDDThhmmss.

    $ sudo apt-get update
    BUILD_TIMESTAMP=$(date -u '+%Y%m%dT%H%M%SZ')
  • Designers can access all build products over the internal network of the regional office. The current prototype employs “rsync”. Other protocols that can efficiently share, copy, or transfer large directories of content can be added as needed.

Advanced Usage

Can the reference build itself use build avoidance? Yes it can. Can it reference itself? Yes it can. In both these cases, caution is advised. To protect against any possible ‘divergence from reality’, you should limit how many steps you remove a build avoidance build from a full build.

Suppose we want to implement a self-referencing daily build in an environment where a full build already occurs every Saturday. To protect ourselves from a build failure on Saturday we also want a limit of seven days since the last full build. Your build script might look like this …


NOW_DAY=$(date -u "+%A")
BUILD_TIMESTAMP=$(date -u '+%Y%m%dT%H%M%SZ')

# update software
repo init -u ${BUILD_REPO_URL} -b ${BUILD_BRANCH}
repo sync --force-sync

# User can optionally define BUILD_METHOD equal to one of 'FULL', 'AVOIDANCE', or 'AUTO'
if [ "$BUILD_METHOD" != "FULL" ] && [ "$BUILD_METHOD" != "AVOIDANCE" ]; then

# First build test
if [ "$BUILD_METHOD" != "FULL" ] && [ ! -L $LAST_FULL_BUILD_LINK ]; then
    echo "latest_full_build symlink missing, forcing full build"

# Build day test
if [ "$BUILD_METHOD" == "AUTO" ] && [ "$NOW_DAY" == "$FULL_BUILD_DAY" ]; then
    echo "Today is $FULL_BUILD_DAY, forcing full build"

# Build age test
if [ "$BUILD_METHOD" != "FULL" ]; then
    LAST_FULL_BUILD_DATE=$(basename $(readlink $LAST_FULL_BUILD_LINK) | cut -d '_' -f 1)
    AGE_SECS=$(( $(date "+%s") - $(date -d $LAST_FULL_BUILD_DATE "+%s") ))
    AGE_DAYS=$(( $AGE_SECS/60/60/24 ))
    if [ $AGE_DAYS -ge $MAX_AGE_DAYS ]; then
        echo "Haven't had a full build in $AGE_DAYS days, forcing full build"

#Build it
if [ "$BUILD_METHOD" == "FULL" ]; then
    build-pkgs --no-build-avoidance
    build-pkgs --build-avoidance --build-avoidance-dir $BUILD_AVOIDANCE_DIR --build-avoidance-host $BUILD_AVOIDANCE_HOST --build-avoidance-user $USER
if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
    echo "Build failed in build-pkgs"
    exit 1

if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
    echo "Build failed in build-iso"
    exit 1

if [ "$BUILD_METHOD" == "FULL" ]; then
    # A successful full build.  Set last full build symlink.
    if [ -L $LAST_FULL_BUILD_LINK ]; then
        rm -rf $LAST_FULL_BUILD_LINK

A final note….

To use the full build day as your avoidance build reference point, modify the “build-pkgs” commands above to use “–build-avoidance-day “, as shown in the following two examples:

build-pkgs --build-avoidance --build-avoidance-dir $BUILD_AVOIDANCE_DIR --build-avoidance-host $BUILD_AVOIDANCE_HOST --build-avoidance-user $USER --build-avoidance-day $FULL_BUILD_DAY

# Here is another example with a bit more shuffling of the above script.

build-pkgs --build-avoidance --build-avoidance-dir $BUILD_AVOIDANCE_DIR --build-avoidance-host $BUILD_AVOIDANCE_HOST --build-avoidance-user $USER --build-avoidance-day $LAST_FULL_BUILD_DAY

The advantage is that our build is never more than one step removed from a full build. This assumes the full build was successful.

The disadvantage is that by the end of the week, the reference build is getting rather old. During active weeks, build times could approach build times for full builds.

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